Emergency helpers and embrasures

emergency helpers and embrasures

Mitwitz – "the castle chapel ‘seven pains of mary’ in mitwitz is one of the special cultural treasures of our french homeland", according to district local historian dieter lau on the occasion of a guided tour of the wurtzburg chapel in mitwitz moated castle, which has recently become the property of the district of kronach. Parish council chairman markus schindler and dieter lau opened the door to the chapel in the courtyard of the castle, which is framed by an artistically wrought iron grille.

This access was originally assigned to the subjects. The castle servants, the lower-ranking members of the public, could only enter the southwestern, remote part of the chapel from the castle courtyard. The wurtzburgs used the interior staircase tower in the southwest wing as an individual entrance to the lodge.

The separate access of subjects and rulers to the sacred space is an essential feature of a chapel of chivalry, says dieter lau. The first glimpse of the furnishings was provided by the buste of bishop veit II standing on a pedestal. From wurtzburg. It is considered the founder of the chapel. During his term of office, he conferred offices on his family members and endowed them with privileges.

During the tour of the chapel, lau explained some other special features of the building. Thus, the mitwitz chapel has one of the few sacristies in southern germany, which combines the character of a fortress and a sacral building. Typologically, such facilities are called tower sacristies. The defensive capability can be measured not only by the thickness of the walls of the multi-storey tower, but above all from the five square sliding embrasures with stepped framing.

The liturgical furnishings of the castle curacy, which date from different periods, were discussed using a number of examples. The liturgical centerpiece in the castle chapel is a wooden altar decorated with curved profiled paneling, which replaces an older sandstone altar. The altarpiece depicting the lamentation of christ emphasizes the presence of christ in the sacrament of the altar.

With the patrocinium "seven sorrows of mary" at the beginning of the 18. At the end of the 19th century, the veneration of the virgin mary and the saints became the focus of the religious life of the community. In addition to the furnishings, there were further epoch-specific identity features of the catholic faith. Particularly noteworthy is the most valuable artistic element, the altar of the nothelfer from the end of the 17th century. Century. The wooden altar with two columns in the style of tree trunks shows the fourteen helpers with the christ child in the altar leaf. At the end of the tour, the district curator of local history, dieter lau, presented the chairman of the parish council of mitwice, markus schindler, with a yearbook containing an article about the castle curacy.

Historical background

During the reign of prince bishop veit von wurtzburg (1561 to 1577), the noble family was able to consolidate its influence in the high diocese of bamberg and expand its territory. At the end of the 16. At the beginning of the 19th century, the von wurtzburgs, together with rothenkirchen and mitwitz, possessed an extensive dominion and headed the important episcopal offices in the north of the diocese. During the expansion of the mitwitz core castle between 1596 and 1598, hans vitus I. Von wurtzburg builds a chapel in the sudostflugel. Liturgical objects from the 17th century. Century or paraments are no longer detectable in the chapel. This endowment gap is connected with the economic upheaval that followed the death of hans veit I. Von wurtzburg (1610), and with the imperial edict of restitution of march 1629, through which the confessional-territorial disputes with the prince-bishop came to a head. On 19.March 1631 the evangelical pastor of mitwitz was expelled by bamberg and a catholic clergyman was appointed. Plunderings and robberies in the manors of mitwitz and rothenkirchen were the order of the day at that time. The struggle for confessional sovereignty put massive pressure on the von wurtzburgs and their subjects. The disputes reached a climax in 1634 when the prince-bishop withdrew the fiefs in mitwitz and rothenkirchen from the protestant noble family.

Only after leaving the saxon war service was hans veit III. Von wurtzburg (1636) again enfeoffed with the half part of rothenkirchen and his estates in mitwitz. He was able to take possession of his economically badly damaged good again. The 17. Century in the mitwitz dominion was marked by feudal disputes and confessional rifts. The use of the castle chapel was limited to a few mass celebrations, baptisms and weddings during this period.

In 1738 the von wurtzburgs planned to establish a permanent service with the franciscans in the castle chapel. On 1. July 1738 johann philipp von wurtzburg concluded a contract with the fathers of kronach, according to which the franciscans were to read mass daily in the chapel of the lower castle of mitwitz, and on sundays they were also to preach and teach the doctrine of christianity. In 1744 the status of the castle chapel as a catholic curacy became recognizable.

With the religious edict of 10. January 1803 declared elector maximilian IV. Joseph recognized catholics, lutherans and reformed as equals in his hereditary lands. Therefore the catholics in mitwitz asked on december 1822 – for the second time – to be parished out of the protestant parish. They did not want to be parishioners of kronach, glosberg or marktgraitz, "since all of them were two hours away, the catholic clergy was in town and preparations had already been made for the establishment of a school. Therefore, the mitwitz lordship continued to strive to achieve the status of a parish for its curacy.

On 20. February 1830 the government of the upper main district decided that liturgical services in the castle chapel could be performed by any catholic priest. The people of mitwitz, however, were denied their own catholic parish. The reasons for this are to be found in the small number of believers.

Between 1911 and 1913, the castle chapel was completely renovated. After the death of ludwig freiherr von wurtzburg and the extinction of the male line in 1922, the patronage passed to the von cramer-klett family. At the beginning of the 1990s, parish priest harald schwandt and the parish council initiated a fundamental renovation of the chapel. In 2019, further urgent restoration work was completed. The small but very active congregation in the parish of kronach sud continues the tradition of the parish church, which has been in existence since the 16th century. The wurtzburg chapel, which existed in the sixteenth century.

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